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Table of Contents

Part I: INFORMAL LOGIC.

1. Basic Concepts.

Arguments, Premises, and Conclusions. Exercise. Recognizing Arguments. Exercise. Deduction and Induction. Exercise. Validity, Truth, Soundness, Strength, Cogency. Exercise. Argument Forms: Proving Invalidity. Exercise. Extended Arguments. Exercise.

2. Language: Meaning and Definition.

Varieties of Meaning. Exercise. The Intension and Extension of Terms. Exercise. Definitions and Their Purposes. Exercise. Definitional Techniques. Exercise. Criteria for Lexical Definitions. Exercise.

3. Informal Fallacies.

Fallacies in General. Exercise. Fallacies of Relevance. Exercise. Fallacies of Weak Induction. Exercise. Fallacies of Presumption, Ambiguity, and Illicit Transference. Exercise. Fallacies in Ordinary Language. Exercise.

Part II: FORMAL LOGIC.

4. Categorical Propositions.

The Components of Categorical Propositions. Exercise. Quality, Quantity, and Distribution. Exercise. Venn Diagrams and the Modern Square of Opposition. Exercise. Conversion, Obversion, and Contraposition. Exercise. The Traditional Square of Opposition. Exercise. Venn Diagrams and the Traditional Standpoint. Exercise. Translating Ordinary Language Statements into Categorical Form. Exercise.

5. Categorical Syllogisms.

Standard Form, Mood, and Figure. Exercise. Venn Diagrams. Exercise. Rules and Fallacies. Exercise. Reducing the Number of Terms. Exercise. Ordinary Language Arguments. Exercise. Enthymemes. Exercise. Sorites. Exercise.

6. Propositional Logic.

Symbols and Translation. Exercise. Truth Functions. Exercise. Truth Tables for Propositions. Exercise. Truth Tables for Arguments. Exercise. Indirect Truth Tables. Exercise. Argument Forms and Fallacies. Exercise.

7. Natural Deduction in Propositional Logic.

Rules of Implication I. Exercise. Rules of Implication II. Exercise. Rules of Replacement I. Exercise. Rules of Replacement II. Exercise. Conditional Proof. Exercise. Indirect Proof. Exercise. Proving Logical Truths. Exercise.

8. Predicate Logic

Symbols and Translation. Exercise. Using the Rules of Inference. Exercise. Quantifier Negation Rule. Exercise. Conditional and Indirect Proof. Exercise. Proving Invalidity. Exercise. Relational Predicates and Overlapping Quantifiers. Exercise. Identity. Exercise.

Part III: INDUCTIVE LOGIC.

9. Analogy and Legal and Moral Reasoning.

Analogical Reasoning. Legal Reasoning. Moral Reasoning. Exercise.

10. Causality and Mill’s Methods.

“Cause” and Necessary and Sufficient Conditions. Mill’s Five Methods. Mill’s Methods and Science. Exercise.

11. Probability.

Theories of Probability. The Probability Calculus. Exercise.

12. Statistical Reasoning.

Evaluating Statistics. Samples. The Meaning of “Average.” Dispersion. Graphs and Pictograms. Percentages. Exercise.

13. Hypothetical/Scientific Reasoning.

The Hypothetical Method. Hypothetical Reasoning: Four Examples from Science. The Proof of Hypotheses. The Tentative Acceptance of Hypotheses. Exercise.

14. Science and Superstition.

Distinguishing Between Science and Superstition. Evidentiary Support. Objectivity. Integrity. Concluding Remarks. Exercise.

Answers to Selected Exercises.

Glossary/Index.