Test Bank for Understanding Motivation and Emotion, 7th Edition, Johnmarshall Reeve, ISBN: 1119367654, ISBN: 9781119367604
Table of Contents
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
CHAPTER 2 MOTIVATION AND EMOTION IN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE 24
CHAPTER 3 THE MOTIVATED AND EMOTIONAL BRAIN 44
PART I NEEDS 69
CHAPTER 4 PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS 71
CHAPTER 5 EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION AND INTERNALIZATION 98
CHAPTER 6 PSYCHOLOGICAL NEEDS 123
CHAPTER 7 IMPLICIT MOTIVES 152
PART II COGNITIONS 177
CHAPTER 8 GOAL SETTING AND GOAL STRIVING 179
CHAPTER 9 MINDSETS 202
CHAPTER 10 PERSONAL CONTROL BELIEFS 227
CHAPTER 11 THE SELF AND ITS STRIVINGS 255
PART III EMOTIONS 283
CHAPTER 12 NATURE OF EMOTION: SIX PERENNIAL QUESTIONS 285
CHAPTER 13 ASPECTS OF EMOTION 313
CHAPTER 14 INDIVIDUAL EMOTIONS 339
PART IV APPLIED CONCERNS 363
CHAPTER 15 GROWTH MOTIVATION AND POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY 365
CHAPTER 16 UNCONSCIOUS MOTIVATION 397
CHAPTER 17 INTERVENTIONS 423
What Is Motivation? Why Is It Important?
Two Perennial Questions
What Causes Behavior?
Why Does Behavior Vary in Its Intensity?
External Events and Social Contexts
Motivation versus Influence
Expressions of Motivation
Framework to Understand Motivation and Emotion
Ten Unifying Themes
Motivation and Emotion Benefit Adaptation and Functioning
Motivation and Emotion Direct Attention
Motivation and Emotion Are Intervening Variables
Motives Vary over Time and Contribute into the Ongoing Stream of Behavior
Types of Motivation Exist
We Are Not Always Consciously Aware of the Motivational Basis of Our Behavior
Motivation Study Reveals What People Want
To Flourish, Motivation Needs Supportive Conditions
When Trying to Motivate Others, What Is Easy to Do Is Rarely What Works
There Is Nothing So Practical As a Good Theory
Problem of the Day
Why study human motivation? Why is it a worthwhile and satisfying thing to do?
When looking at another person in action, what cues do you use to infer that person’s motivation? In other words, when a person is motivated, how do you know it?
Ask each student to construct a personal, onesentence definition. Then ask the students
to exchange and share their written definitions with the person sitting next to them.
Ask each student to construct a personal, onesentence definition (if possible). Then, ask
the students to exchange and share their written definitions with the person sitting next to them.
1. Imagine that a guest speaker, named Dr. Motivation, pays a visit to your class.
He wonders if you might have one burning question to ask. What might that question be?
2. From a motivational point of view, what causes behavior?
3. From a motivational point of view, why does behavior vary in its intensity?
4. Are people primarily motivated by internal motives or by external events,
or are people motivated about equally by internal motives and external events?
1. Think about a serious motivational problem you had. What was it?
What do you think caused the problem? How might you solve it?
2. Think about a serious motivational problem someone else had (e.g., a friend or
teammate). What was it? What do you think caused the problem?
How might you solve it?
3. Why did you come to class today? Provide a motivational answer to explain:
Initiation: What motivated you to come to class in the first place?
Persistence: Why do you continue to stay minute after minute?
Why come back tomorrow?
Goal directedness: Why go to class today rather than do something else?
MultipleChoice Test Questions
__ 1. Motivation study concerns itself with those processes that give behavior its:
(a) benefits and costs.
(b) energy and direction.
(c) feedforward and feedback.
(d) success and personal authenticity.
__ 2. A theory is a(n):
(a) construction of facts with successive layers of complexity.
(b) intellectual forecast to estimate the value of a psychological principle.
(c) project requiring some action or some set of actions.
(d) intellectual framework that organizes a vast amount of information about a
phenomenon as to describe, understand, and explain it.
__ 3. Pairing science and motivation in the phrase motivational science means that answers to motivational questions require:
(a) that one’s personal beliefs about motivation are confirmed by cultural norms.
(b) opportunities to reflect on one’s personal experiences so as to gain personal
insights about the nature of motivation.
(c) objective, databased, empirical evidence from wellconducted research.
(d) that one recognizes that most motivational states cannot be studied scientifically.
__ 4. Which of the following statements is most true?
(a) A motive is an internal process that energizes and directs behavior.
(b) Cognitions are shortlived physiologicalfunctionalexpressive phenomena.
(c) External motives (incentives) predict behavior better than do internal motives (needs).
(d) Internal motives (needs) predict behavior better than do external motives (incentives).
__ 5. Which of the following statements best defines motivation? Motivation is:
(a) an intense desire to succeed.
(b) a force that energizes and directs behavior.
(c) a system of rewards and punishments to influence behavior.
(d) positive beliefs about oneself, such as high selfesteem.
__ 6. Among the following questions, which is considered to be a core, perennial question within motivation study?
(a) Is human behavior mostly conscious or mostly unconscious?
(b) Under what conditions do people learn best?
(c) What causes behavior?
(d) Why are people happy?
__ 7. People often say that the best way to motivate others is to increase their selfesteem, as in Find a way to make people feel good about themselves, and then all sorts of good things start to happen. In response to this approach to motivation, the textbook concluded that:
(a) no research exists on selfesteem because it is best studied through personal experience.
(b) a great deal of evidence supports this approach to motivation.
(c) practically no evidence supports this approach to motivation.
(d) while not perfect, increasing selfesteem is still the most effective approach to
motivating other people.
__ 8. Which of the following questions is not a key part of understanding motivation study’s basic question, What causes behavior?
(a) Once begun, why is a behavior sustained over time?
(b) What is the difference between one type of behavior and another?
(c) Why does behavior start?
(d) Why does behavior stop?
__ 9. A motivation researcher interested in understanding why a person eats a meal needs to answer all of the following questions, except:
(a) How is food digested?
(b) Why did the eating begin?
(c) Why did the eating end?
(d) Why did the person eat quickly at first but eat much slower after several bites?
(e) Why is the person eating a meal rather than doing something else?
__10. _________ are conditions within the individual that are essential and necessary for the maintenance of life and for the nurturance of growth and wellbeing.
__11. __________ are shortlived subjectivephysiologicalfunctionalexpressive phenomena that orchestrate how a person reacts to significant life events.
__12. In contrast to other psychological constructs, such as intelligence and personality, the construct of “motivation” has one great advantage, which is that:
(a) measures of motivation are more reliable than are measures of these other
(b) motivation is more psychological in nature than these other constructs.
(c) motivation is more stable and endures over time more than these other constructs.
(d) the antecedent conditions to motivational states are frequently known.
__13. The duration of time a person waits to get started on a task upon first being given the opportunity to do so (e.g., how much time it takes before one starts studying upon entering the library) is called:
(e) probability of response.
__14. _____ is the time between when a behavior first starts until it ends.
(e) Probability of response